The Christians in Corinth are wrestling with how to live faithfully as Christians in a society that was full of idols. The specific issue they were wrestling with is whether they could eat meat that had been sacrificed to idols. Some Christians believed they could while others believed they could not.
Paul will come out and explain that they cannot go to idol temples in chapter 10 (1 Cor. 10:14-22). But in chapter 8 he approaches the issue from a different angle. He wants them to understand that a knowledge of God’s Word is crucial but knowledge alone is not enough. Christian conduct and their decisions about these issues must be based on love for others.